Class XII: Chemistry Chapter 1: The Solid Point out Concept 1 ) Solid: Sound is a condition of subject in which the constituting particles happen to be arranged extremely closely. The constituent particles could be atoms, molecules or ions. Properties of solids: a. They have definite mass, volume level and form. b. Intermolecular distances will be short and therefore the intermolecular forces happen to be strong. c. Their component particles have fixed positions and can only oscillate about their mean positions. m. They are incompressible and rigid. 3. Classification of based on the arrangement of constituent particles: a. Crystalline hues: The arrangement of constituent particles is a regular orderly arrangement. Case: iron, birdwatcher, diamond, graphite b. Unstable solids: The arrangement of constituent allergens is a great irregular arrangement. Example: Glass, plastics, plastic 4. Properties of transparent solids: a. They have a distinct characteristic geometrical shape m. They have a long range order. c. They have a well-defined melting level. d. They can be anisotropic in nature we. e. all their physical homes show several values once measured along different guidelines in the same crystal. elizabeth. When lower with a razor-sharp edged device, they split up into two items and the newly generated surfaces are ordinary and smooth. f. They have a definite and characteristic heat of fusion g. They are really called authentic solids a few. Polymorphic forms or polymorphs: The different crystalline forms of a substance happen to be known as polymorphic forms or polymorphs. By way of example: graphite and diamond.

2 .

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Type of Sturdy Molecular solids 1 . No polar installment payments on your Polar several. Hydrogen fused Ionic solids Ions Dipole-dipole interactions Hydrogen bonding Coulombic or electrostatic HCl, solid SO2, solid NH3 WATER (ice) Gentle Hard Insulator Insulator Low Low

Types of transparent solids:

Constituen t Allergens Molecules Bonding/ Attractive Causes Dispersion or perhaps London pushes Physical characteristics Soft Electric powered conductivity Insulator Melting point Very low

Good examples Ar, CCl4, H2, I2, CO2

NaCl, MgO, ZnS, CaF2

Metallic solids

Covalent or network solids

Great ions within a sea of delocalized bad particals Atoms

Metallic bonding

Fe, Cu, Aktiengesellschaft, Mg

Insulators in solid state but conductors in molten condition & in aqueous solutions Hard yet Conductors in solid comfortable state whilst in the and ductile Molten point out Hard Gentle Insulators Director (exception)

Hard but frail


Fairly high

Covalent bonding

SiO2 (quartz), Semblable, C (diamond), AlN C(graphite)

Very high


Characteristics of amorphous solids: a. They may have an abnormal shape. b. They have a short range buy. c. They will gradually soften over a selection of temperature m. They are isotropic in nature i. elizabeth. their physical properties are identical in all directions. electronic. When minimize with a sharp edged device, they slice into two pieces with irregular surfaces. f. They just do not have certain heat of fusion g. They are named pseudo hues or super cooled fluids. This is because they have a tendency to flow, although very slowly.

8. 9.

Crystal essudato: A regular purchased arrangement of constituent particles in three dimensions is referred to as crystal essudato. Lattice factors or lattice sites: The fixed positions on which the constituent particles are present are called lattice points or lattice sites. A group of lattice items which once repeated repeatedly in a few dimensions supply the complete crystal lattice.

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Product cell: The system cell is defined as the smallest repeating unit in space essudato which when repeated time and time again generates the entire crystal lattice. The crystal can incorporate an infinite number of unit skin cells. Parameters which characterize a unit cell: a. Dimensions in the unit cell along the 3 edges, a, b and c: These types of edges may or may not be mutually...


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